Sponge Iron

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Sponge Iron

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Direct reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron,[1] is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal. Many ores are suitable for direct reduction.

Reduced iron derives its name from the chemical change that iron ore undergoes when it is heated in a furnace at high temperatures in the presence of hydrocarbon-rich gases, carbon monoxide, or elemental carbon. Direct reduction refers to processes which reduce iron oxides to metallic iron at temperatures below the melting point of iron. The product of such solid state processes is called direct reduced iron.

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Description

Sponge iron is a metallic product produced through direct reduction of iron ore in the solid state. It is a substitute for scrap and is mainly used in making steel through the secondary route. The process of sponge iron making aims to remove the oxygen from iron ore. The quality of sponge iron is primarily ascertained by the percentage of metallization (removal of oxygen), which is the ratio of metallic iron to the total iron present in the product.
Sponge iron manufacture is highly sensitive to raw material characteristics. Therefore, it is essential to examine the chemical and physical characteristics of raw materials, both individually and in combination. The basic raw materials for the production of sponge iron are iron ore, non-coking coal and dolomite. Sizing of the Raw materials also play vital role in sponge iron manufacturing process. The required size of Iron ore, MPS (Mean particle size) , its physical properties like T.I., A.I. & chemical properties like Fe (T), LOI, gangue content In Sponge Iron Process , two types of coal are being used such as feed coal and injection coal.

 

Direct reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal. Many ores are suitable for direct reduction.

Reduced iron derives its name from the chemical change that iron ore undergoes when it is heated in a furnace at a high temperature of 800 to 1200 °C in the presence of a reducing gas called syngas which is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Direct reduction refers to processes which reduce iron oxides to metallic iron at temperatures below the melting point of iron. The product of such solid state processes is called direct reduced iron.

 

In modern times, direct reduction processes have been developed to specifically overcome the difficulties of conventional blast furnaces. DRI is successfully manufactured in various parts of the world and enables production of specialized iron and steel based products in a decentralized manner (as distinct from the older, centralized Open Hearth Furnace based model of the so-called ‘Integrated’ Steel Plants). The initial capital investment (CAPEX) and operating costs (OPEX) of direct reduction plants are lower than integrated steel plants and are more suitable for developing countries where supplies of high grade coking coal are limited however steel scrap is generally available for recycling.

Factors that help make DRI economical:

  • Direct-reduced iron has about the same iron content as pig iron, typically 90–94% total iron (depending on the quality of the raw ore) so it is an excellent feedstock for the electric furnaces used by mini mills, allowing them to use lower grades of scrap for the rest of the charge or to produce higher grades of steel.
  • Hot-briquetted iron (HBI) is a compacted form of DRI designed for ease of shipping, handling and storage.
  • Hot direct reduced iron (HDRI) is iron not cooled before discharge from the reduction furnace, that is immediately transported to a waiting electric arc furnace and charged, thereby saving energy.
  • The direct reduction process uses pelletized iron ore or natural “lump” ore. One exception is the fluidized bed process which requires sized iron ore particles.
  • The direct reduction process can use natural gas contaminated with inert gases, avoiding the need to remove these gases for other use. However, any inert gas contamination of the reducing gas lowers the effect (quality) of that gas stream and the thermal efficiency of the process.
  • Supplies of powdered ore and raw natural gas are both available in areas such as Northern Australia, avoiding transport costs for the gas. In most cases the DRI plant is located near natural gas source as it is more cost effective to ship the ore rather than the gas.
  • This method produces 97% pure iron.

 

 

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Weight 5.000.000.000.000 kg
Sponge Iron

Sponge Iron
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No.DateDelivery TermTax (9%)GradeSizePrice( USD )Chart
111-Mar to 17-MarCFR Bangladesh (From India)Not IncludelumpsFe 80-82%327

ComponentFe(Total)Fe(Metal)MetalizationCSPSiO2AL2O3CaOMgOSize 0-6.3
Production Range86%-89.5%78.5%-82%Min 90%1.3%-2%Max 0.01%Max 0.1%Max 5.5%Max 1%Max 1.1%Max 2.5%Max 5%